Having a healthy body and free from disease is certainly the desire of all people. Unfortunately, there are several types of diseases that are difficult to avoid, one of which is hereditary diseases.
Hereditary diseases come from mutations or changes in genetic traits that are inherited from one or both parents to the child. Hereditary diseases are generally difficult or even preventable. People who appear healthy may have a risk of inheriting genetic disorders to their offspring.
7 Common Hereditary Diseases
To identify hereditary diseases and the risk of being transmitted to children, genetic testing can be done on the parents before planning a pregnancy or on the fetus in the womb. The following are some common hereditary diseases that you need to be aware of.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes causes sufferers experiencing hormone insulin deficiency. This disease is generally hereditary and often occurs since childhood. However, there is also type 1 diabetes that occurs in adulthood. The risk of a child suffering from this disease will be higher if both biological parents suffer from type 1 diabetes.
Hemophilia is a hereditary disease that causes blood clotting disorders. This condition is more common in men. Under normal conditions, blood clotting factors will work to make the blood clot during an injury or bleeding. But in patients with hemophilia, his body lacks blood clotting factors, so it takes longer to stop bleeding.
This disease attacks the red blood cells. This condition makes hemoglobin in red blood cells reduced. So, oxygen will difficult to circulate throughout the body. Children who born with severe thalassemia mostly die at birth. In some cases, children who have thalassemia can live, but very susceptible to anemia. Therefore, they often need a blood transfusion.
Alzheimer’s disease is a serious brain disorder that makes a person senile and affects their ability to carry out daily activities. This disease usually affects older people over 60 years. But it is also possible to occur in people who are younger. A person’s risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease will increase if he or she has family members who also suffer from this disease.
Cancer can occur not only because of unhealthy living habits, but also genetic factor will increase the risk of experiencing cancer. However, cancer inherited by genetic factors is relatively low about 5% -10% of cancer cases due to other cancer causes.
Genetic factor plays a big enough role in the emergence of heart disease. However, there are several factors that can further increase the risk of this disease such as unhealthy eating patterns, smoking, being overweight, suffering from high cholesterol, and rarely exercising.
People who suffer from mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism, ADHD, anxiety disorders, Down syndrome, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are most likely to have parents or relatives who also suffer from similar disorders.
However, this mental disorder can also occur in people without a history of similar illness in their families. This is presumably because, besides genetic factors, the appearance of mental disorder is also influenced by other factors such as stress or severe psychological pressure.
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People who have a family history of hereditary disease need to be more vigilant. Although most hereditary diseases cannot be prevented, the risk can be reduced. Therefore, do a routine health check to the doctor.
You can also do a genetic examination before marriage and plan for pregnancy to detect the early possibility of hereditary diseases that can be passed on to children.