Coronavirus is a virus that attacks the respiratory system. This virus can cause disorders of the respiratory system, acute pneumonia, and even death.
Coronavirus or better known as Virus 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a new type of coronavirus which is transmissible to humans. This virus was first discovered in the city of Wuhan, China, at the end of December 2019. This virus spread quickly and has spread to other regions in China and to several countries.
Coronavirus is a collection of viruses that can infect the respiratory system. In many cases, this virus only causes mild respiratory infections such as flu. However, this virus can also cause severe respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
Symptoms of Coronavirus
This virus infection can cause sufferers to experience flu symptoms such as runny nose, headache, cough, sore throat, and fever or symptoms of severe respiratory infections such as high fever, cough with phlegm and even bleeding, shortness of breath, and chest pain.
Although Coronavirus symptoms have similar symptoms to the common flu, coronavirus is more dangerous and can be fatal. These two viruses come from different groups and have different characteristics.
The virus that causes flu or influenza comes from the rhinovirus group. This virus spreads from human to human and most often attacks children or adolescents. Rhinovirus infections can occur throughout the year, but most often in the rainy season. Meanwhile, COVID-19 is caused by viruses from the coronavirus group and can affect anyone.
In general, there are 3 general symptoms that can indicate someone is infected with the Coronavirus. They are:
- Hard to breathe
According to research, the symptoms appear within 2 days to 2 weeks after exposure to the virus. But in severe cases, Coronavirus infection can cause serious complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, severe pneumonia or lung infection, pulmonary edema, and malfunction of body organs such as the kidneys.
When to see a doctor?
Immediately see a doctor if you experience the symptoms, especially if the symptoms appear 2 weeks after returning from China or another country that is positively infected. People suspected of being infected with Corona must be referred immediately to the nearest hospital emergency room in order to get proper treatment.
Causes of Coronavirus
The infection is caused by a coronavirus, a group of viruses that infect the respiratory system. In most cases, this virus only causes mild to moderate respiratory infections such as flu. However, this virus can also cause severe respiratory infections, such as MERS, SARS, and pneumonia.
It is suspected that the Coronavirus was initially transmitted from animals to humans. However, it was later discovered that this virus was also transmitted from human to human.
A person can be infected with coronavirus in various ways, such as:
- Accidentally inhale a splash of saliva from sneezing or coughing of the sufferers.
- Hold the mouth or nose without washing hands first after touching an object affected by the patient’s saliva.
- Close contact with sufferers, such as touching or shaking hands.
Corona can infect anyone, but more at risk of attacking the elderly as well as people who are sick or have weak immunity.
To determine whether the patient is infected or not, the doctor will ask about the symptoms experienced by the patient. The doctor will also ask if the patient is traveling to the Coronavirus endemic area before symptoms appear.
To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will carry out the following follow-up examinations:
- Blood sample test.
- A throat swab test to examine sputum samples.
- Chest radiograph to detect infiltrates or fluid in the lungs.
Corona Virus Treatment
Until this article made (Feb/3/2020), no drugs or vaccines have been found to treat, prevent, and end coronavirus infection. However, coronavirus symptoms that are like the common cold can be alleviated with cold medicine. The treatment is more aimed at maintaining the patient’s condition and addressing complications that arise so as not to be fatal.
There are several steps that doctors can take to relieve the symptoms, namely:
- Providing fever and pain relievers. However, doctors will not give aspirin to sufferers who are still children.
- Encourage sufferers to take a warm bath and use a humidifier to relieve cough and sore throat.
- Encourage sufferers to get enough rest and do not leave the house to prevent the spread of the virus.
- Encourage and require sufferers to drink lots of water in order to maintain body fluid levels.
In severe cases, coronavirus infection can cause serious complications, such as:
- Secondary infection of other organs
- Kidney failure
- Acute cardiac injury
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Until this article made (Feb/3/2020), there is no vaccine to prevent this virus. Therefore, the best way to prevent it is to avoid the factors that can cause you to be infected with this virus, such as:
- Avoid traveling to China or other countries where Coronavirus transmission has been found.
- Use a mask when outdoors, especially if you are doing activities in public places.
- Wash your hands regularly with water and soap or hand sanitizer containing alcohol after outdoor activities.
- Avoid contact with animals, especially wild animals. In case of contact with animals, wash your hands afterward.
- Make sure you cook the meat completely before consuming it.
- Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze then throw the tissue in the trash.
- Do not touch the eyes, mouth, and nose before washing hands.
- Avoid being close to someone who is sick.
- Keep clean objects that are often touched and environmental cleanliness.
For someone suspected of being infected with the Corona, there are several steps you can take to prevent the virus from spreading to others.
- Do not leave the house, except for treatment.
- Try to stay apart from other people for a while. If that is not possible, use a bedroom and bathroom that is different from what others use.
- Forbid and prevent others from visiting you until you are completely healed.
- As much as possible do not have meetings with people who are sick.
- Avoid sharing eating and drinking utensils, toiletries, and bedding with other people.
- Wear a mask and gloves when in a public place or with someone else.
- Use a tissue to cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing then throw the tissue in the trash.
The Right Mask for Coronavirus
As we know, lately, people are busy looking for masks to protect themselves from the Coronavirus. This virus is found in the saliva splashes of a sick person when he sneezes, coughs, or even while talking. Transmission occurs when saliva splashes inhaled by other people around. So, using a mask in a public area is really important.
Many choices of masks on the market can make you confused. To choose am appropriate mask, you need to understand the function of each mask first. Some of them are only useful to ward off pollution but cannot ward off the transmission of the Coronavirus. Until now, there are 2 types of recommended masks for the Coronavirus.
1. Surgical Mask
Surgical mask is a type of disposable mask that is easily found and is often used by medical personnel when on duty. Surgical masks can be selected to prevent the spread of Coronavirus because it has a layer that is able to dispel the sprinkling of saliva.
Even so, this mask is more effective when worn by people who are sick to prevent transmission of germs to others, rather than by healthy people to protect themselves from the disease.
Most surgical masks consist of 3 layers that have different functions:
- The outer layer is waterproof.
- Middle layer is as a germ filter.
- Inner layer is to absorb the liquid that comes out of the mouth.
2. N95 Mask
N95 masks are also recommended to prevent transmission of the Coronavirus. This mask is not only able to dispel sprinkling of saliva, but also small particles in the air that may contain viruses.
Compared to surgical masks, the N95 mask feels tighter on the face because it has been designed to fit the nose and mouth of an adult. In children, the use of this mask is not recommended because the size of the mask can be too large so it cannot provide enough protection.
Although the protection is better, the N95 mask is not recommended for everyday use. This is due to the design that makes people who use it can be difficult to breathe, hot, and do not feel comfortable wearing it for a longer period of time.
Using a mask for the Coronavirus is effective in preventing transmission. Whatever type of mask, you must understand how to use it appropriately. In addition, washing your hands is as important as wearing a mask. Always wash your hands after every action or touch, especially in public places.
How will the Coronavirus Outbreak End?
The infection and death rates of coronavirus continue to increase. A number of researchers have predicted a scenario that might be the end of a novel coronavirus outbreak.
According to Amesh Adalja, a researcher as well as an infectious disease expert at the Johns Hopkins’ Center for Health Security, United States and a number of other researchers related to the end of the coronavirus outbreak, the following are 3 theories of how to end coronavirus outbreak.
1. The Infection Will Decreases by Itself
The 2019-nCoV outbreak is very similar to the SARS outbreak with 80% similarity in DNA. Scientists suspect that the end of the coronavirus outbreak will also be the same as the SARS outbreak, decrease by itself.
During the SARS outbreak, health authorities in each country encouraged efforts to detect, examine, and isolate patients infected with SARS-CoV as well as quarantine, travel restrictions, and checks at airports to prevent the virus from multiplying. So, it goes away by itself.
The governments of several countries are now doing the same way to reach the end of the coronavirus outbreak. If this step continues, the number of people who are vulnerable to infection will continue to decrease. So, the virus cannot spread more broadly Although the viruses are still around you, there are very few and not many will be infected by it.
2. Vaccines are Available to Stop Coronavirus
Until this article made (Feb/3/2020), there is no vaccine available to end the endemic coronavirus outbreak. Vaccine development is still ongoing and researchers. Nevertheless, efforts to develop the SARS vaccine a dozen years ago are now a provision for researchers in making novel coronavirus vaccines. Thus, the vaccine development process may take a shorter time.
While waiting for the emergence of the vaccine, the public can protect themselves from coronavirus outbreaks through prevention efforts. The simplest step that can be done now is to wash your hands regularly using clean water and soap.
3. Novel Coronavirus Outbreak Does not End But Become a Seasonal Disease
Based on data compiled by the Worldometer, the transmission rate of coronavirus is one of the fastest transmissions among viruses of its kind. The rate of transmission is much faster than the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that broke out in 2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome(MERS) in 2013.
Coronavirus is a virus that is very easily mutated. Besides making the virus stronger, mutations can also weaken the virus. According to Amesh Adalja, a coronavirus novel outbreak might not have an end. However, you do not need to panic. The outbreaks may not have an end, but this infection can become a seasonal disease as well as colds and flu.
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Although the end of a coronavirus novel outbreak may still not be seen, each party is currently trying hard to detect patients and prevent transmission. You can also play an active role by taking care of yourself and those closest to you.
If you experience flu symptoms, especially those that do not heal for more than 1 week and are accompanied by a high fever, consult a doctor immediately to determine the cause.